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Sikhism in Afghanistan is limited to small populations, primarily in major cities, with the largest numbers of Afghan Sikhs living in Jalalabad, Kabul, and Kandahar. These Sikhs are Afghan nationals, and generally speak Pashto, the language of Afghanistan's majority Pashto community, though some speak Dari (the lingua franca) or their traditional Hindi and Punjabi.
Estimates of the Afghan Sikh population prior to the 1979 Soviet invasion have been given as 200,000, and 50,000 prior to the 1992 Afghan Civil War. Estimates of the current number of Sikhs range from 170 to 3,000 families.